Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis
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Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis

Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (oridiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosisIPH) is a lung disease of unknown cause that is characterized by alveolar capillary bleeding and accumulation of haemosiderin in the lungs. It is rare, with an incidence between 0.24 and 1.23cases per million people.

There are many pulmonary problems that may seem to mimic haemosiderosis but do not necessarily include the deposits of iron into the lung. The deposition of iron in the lungs, occurring in the form of haemosiderin, is the defining characteristic of this illness. These other conditions may occur separately or together with haemosiderosis.
- Pulmonary Fibrosis
- Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
- Immune Complex Disease
- Intra-alveolar bleeding Diagnosis
Clinically, IPH manifests as a triad of haemoptysis, diffuse parenchymal infiltrates on chest radiographs, and iron deficiency anaemia. It is diagnosed at an average age of 4.5 plus or minus 3.5 years, and it is twice as common in females. The clinical course of IPH is exceedingly variable, and most of the patients continue to have episodes of pulmonary haemorrhage despite therapy. Death may occur suddenly from acute pulmonary haemorrhage or after progressive pulmonary insufficiency resulting in chronic respiratory failure.
Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment of IPH, though they are controversial and lack clear evidence in their favour. They are thought to decrease the frequency of haemorrhage,while other studies suggest that they do not have any effect on the course or prognosis of this disease. In either case, steroid therapy has significant side effects. Small trials have investigated the use of other medications, but none has emerged as a clear standard of care. This includes immune modulators such as hydroxychloroquine,azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide. 6-mercaptopurine as a long-term therapy may prevent pulmonary haemorrhage. A 2007 scientific letter. reports preliminary success in preventing pulmonary haemorrhage with the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine.
Death may occur rapidly with acute, massive pulmonary bleeding or over longer periods as the result of continued pulmonary failure and right heart failure. Historically, patients had an average survival of 2.5 years after diagnosis, but today 86% may survive beyond five years.

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