Basics of nanotechnology
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Basics of nanotechnology

Nanotechnology for their specificity is an interdisciplinary scientific field of applied art dedicated to the study andcreation of pioneering and innovative methods to obtain new materials with special properties, which are furtherapplied in a variety of industries life of modern man.

Nanotechnology generally works with structures which have the values ​​of 100 nm and even less, while using the device, as well as materials having the dimensions described above. Nanotechnology today is extremely diverseand is used in a variety of studies, ranging from the creation of new technical devices to the latest researchrelated to the study of molecular-atomic level.

Fundamentals of Nanotechnology.

The method of atomic force microscopy.

I should say that one of the main tools used for working with microparticles are microscopes, because withoutthis device is not possible to not only work with the microparticles, but also to study the microcosm. Increasedresolving features of modern microscopes and getting more and more knowledge about elementary particlestoday are interconnected with each other. At the moment, using equipment such as atomic force microscopy orAFM and scanning electron microscopes, modern scientists have the opportunity not only to observe theindividual atoms, but even finding ways of influencing them, such as peremetyvaya atoms on the surface. In thismodern scientists have managed to create a so-called two-dimensional nanostructures on surfaces using the method above effects. For example, in research centers of the famous IBM's scientists by sequential mixing of xenon atoms on the surface of nickel nanocrystals were able to create a company logo, consisting of 35 atoms.

Follow these steps associated with the mixing of substances, as well as their separation and connection,scientists are faced with some technical difficulties. To overcome which it is necessary to create conditionssupersonic vacuum (10? 11 Torr), it is necessary to cool the footboard and to the microscope ultralow temperature of from 4 to 10 K, whereby the surface of the substrate should be clean and smooth on the atomic level. It uses specialized technology mechanical and chemical processing of products, with the aim of thistreatment is to reduce the creation of surface diffusion of deposited atoms, whereby the base and is cooled.


The main distinguishing feature of the new materials, which are obtained through use of nanotechnology isgetting unpredictable fizikotehnicheskih acquired characteristics of these materials. Thanks to this modern scientists are able to obtain new quantum physical and mechanical properties for substances, which are modified electronic structures, which automatically changes the form of the manifestation of these compounds.For example, the ability to reduce the particle size not in all cases to define and conduct measurements using amacro or micro measurements. However, measurements may be possible in that case if the particle size is in the range of nanometers. It should also be noted that certain physico-mechanical properties change whenresizing elements. At the moment, the existence of unusual mechanical properties of nanomaterials is a subject of research scientists working in the field nanomehanniki. A separate place in modern nanotechnology takesobtaining new substances by using various catalysts, which affect the behavior of nanomaterials by reactingthem with various biomaterials.

As we said earlier, the particles having a size of 1 to 100 nanometers, called nanoparticles, while studies have shown that nanoparticles of many materials have high absortsionnymi AND CATALYTIC properties. Other materials are possible to obtain unique optical properties. For example, researchers have been able to obtain a transparent ceramic materials which become a basis for the nanopowders 2-28nm in size, having betterproperties than, for example, crowns. Also, scientists were able to get the interaction of nanoparticles withartificially produced natural objects possessing nanoscale, such as proteins, nucleic acids, etc. Furthermorepurified nanoparticles because of their unique properties have the ability to be integrated into various structures.Such structures containing a nanoparticle obtained previously unheard their properties and characteristics.

To date, all nano-objects are divided into three classes:

The first class includes the three-dimensional particles which are obtained by the explosion of conductors by plasma synthesis or by restoring the thin films.

The second class includes the so-called two-dimensional objects, and films are produced using the method of atomic layer deposition, ALD, CVD and ionic layer deposition methods.

The third class includes whiskers or one-dimensional objects, obtained by atomic layer deposition, or the introduction of various substances into the cylindrical microport.

Furthermore, there are also nanocomposites are obtained by introducing nanoparticles into specialized matrix.Today got a lot of use while only microlithography method, which allows you to get on the surface of the matrixislet flat objects having a size of 50 nm, and used in modern electronics. Also it should be noted and moleculartechniques and ion lamination since using these methods may receive real coating film in the form of a monolayer.

Self-organization of nanoparticles.

One of the major challenges facing the nanotechnology is how to make atoms and molecules carry groupingcertain way that would allow them to self-development and samoremontirovatsya that eventually would lead to the production of new materials or devices. These tasks run by scientists, chemists working in the field of supramolecular chemistry. At the same time they spend not studying individual molecules, and the interactionbetween them, and how they are organized in a particular impact, and whether the ability to form new substances. Many scientists believe that nature really has such systems, and take place in it such processes.For example, already known biopolymers, which may be organized in a specific structure. Also, as such examples are proteins that due to their properties can not only curl up and get a globular shape, but also to formthe entire complex and the structures that contain several protein molecules. Even today, scientists were able tocreate a method of synthesis used the specific properties that the DNA molecule.

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