Malaria. Treatment and Prevention

Malaria, also known as swamp or intermittent fever, is an infectious disease which is characterized by a high fever. Malariarelated to tropical diseases, its agents aresingle-celled parasite Plasmodium family andcarriers - malarial mosquitoes (Anopheles).The disease occurs in more than hundred countries, mainly in Africa. Worldwide are infected with it from 300 to 500 million people. Many sick, especially the children, unfortunately, you can not survive.

There are several types of malaria:

• Jungle Fever - the most dangerous form of malaria,
• vivax - rarely fatal, but passes in complex form,
• The four malaria - a very rare species of malaria

Plasmodium - it protists, the size of several micrometers. They go through a life cycle, during which take different forms and at the same time multiply. As hosts act like a mosquito, and people. Plasmodium found in the gut and salivary glands of the mosquito, transferred through mosquito bites per person, affecting primarily the liver, and eventually most of the erythrocytes.

In rare cases of malaria can be transmitted through non-sterile syringe needle, either by direct blood transfusion. It is also possible infection of the fetus from the mother.
Sometimes malarial mosquitoes unable to fly the plane, and then, "traveling", they can infect passengers at airports (the so-called "airport-" malaria).
People who have had malaria, is not produced wide immunity against the disease. And there is no vaccineagainst malaria. However, people living at risk of infection, forming a "partial" immunity when in the presence ofPlasmodium blood disease does not develop. People with a complete absence of immunity, for example, tourists from Europe, are automatically placed in the high risk of developing severe malaria.

The first symptoms of the disease appear, usually within a few days after infection. Depending on the type of malaria, the incubation period lasts from 1 to 2 weeks, sometimes longer.
Observed in malaria fever, and general malaise feeling. Ill complain of headache and pain in the joints, and sometimes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and jaundice. Without the provision of timely medical care malaria in most cases takes place in severe form, which leads to organ damage or death.
Jungle Fever is characterized by alternating bouts of high temperature. In some cases, complications may occurin the form of damage to the nervous system (cerebral malaria). This gives rise to symptoms such as seizuresand convulsions delirium. It is also possible blood clots in small blood vessels and the development of anemia.In addition, tropical malaria can cause cardiovascular failure or lethal failure of any organ.

Falciparum malaria is accompanied by intermittent fever. Thus every 48 hours in the patient there is a fever andthe body temperature rises to 40 °. After a few hours, the temperature plummets, but in this case the patientsweats heavily.

The four malaria is similar to other types of symptoms, but in this case, febrile seizures occur every 72 hours. A few years after the disease it may be a relapse.
Diagnosis of malaria is primarily in confirming the presence of the pathogen in the blood - Plasmodium. For this purpose, a sample of blood, which is analyzed by specialists. Even if there are no Plasmodium, malaria can not be excluded. Necessary to carry out further tests. To determine the severity of the disease is also carried out a thorough clinical examination of the patient.

After identifying the type of plasmodium assigned appropriate medication. Therapy should be chosen dependingon the type of malaria disease severity, as well as the region where the infection occurred.
In malaria appointed as symptomatic therapy, such as antipyretics (paracetamol), compresses on caviar. In severe cases may require blood transfusion, intensive care, or blood purification (hemodialysis). It is important to begin treatment as soon as possible, because in some cases, malaria is a deadly disease.

Before the trip to the tropics or subtropics, should carefully consider the information about the potential health risks in the country selected for the trip. Those who are in the country to the risk of contracting malaria, you should take care of reliable protection from mosquitoes.

Recommended that:
- Wear clothing closed at nightfall, as malarial mosquitoes are active at this time,
- Use protection against mosquitoes and mosquito nets
- Ensure that, to the room in which you are long (eg, hotel room) were well protected against mosquitoes (air conditioning, net of flies).

Depending on the region can be assigned to preventive medicine. To do this, refer to a specialist who candetermine what drug suits your occasion. It is important to take the medication according to instructions. And remember: preventative measures are not immunized and do not give an absolute guarantee that you will not become infected with malaria!
If after a trip, you will have the typical malaria symptoms (eg, fever), you must consult a doctor immediately!

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